Pets are prone to various diseases, like people. A whole arsenal of pharmacological agents is used for treatment. In the article, we will talk about the properties and indications for the use of Furosemide, as well as the rules of its use for cats and dogs. We will describe the contraindications and side effects identified by specialists after using the medication. Lasix (Furosemide) is prescribed for dogs and cats with edematous syndrome of various etiologies, including swelling of the lungs, severe forms of arterial hypertension, chronic heart failure, liver cirrhosis, nephrotoxic syndrome and other diseases accompanied by edema.
Contraindication to the use of the drug is increased individual sensitivity (including in the anamnesis) to furosemide, coma, renal coma, glomerulonephritis, acute renal failure accompanied by anuria, violation of water-salt metabolism and acid-base balance (hypokalemia, alkalosis, hypovolemia, hyponatremia), decompensated mitral or aortic stenosis, myocardial infarction.
Indications for Using Furosemide in Dogs and Cats
Furosemide causes an expansion of the veins, due to this, the pressure of filling the left ventricle of the heart, as well as the pulmonary artery, is reduced. Veterinarians distinguish the following diseases, in which Furosemide is used:
• Edema of the kidneys, heart and brain;
• Chronic and acute renal failure;
• Diseases of the liver, including cirrhosis;
• High blood pressure;
• Heart failure;
• Intoxication and poisoning;
• All diseases that cause edema
The active component disrupts the reverse absorption of chlorine and sodium ions, resulting in the elimination of the liquid from the body together with ions of potassium, magnesium, calcium.
Pharmacological action occurs after half an hour after taking the drug, and the effect lasts about 4 hours. The active substance in the process of biotransformation is converted into glucuripide, is excreted from the body naturally (with urine).
When treating kidney failure in a pet, it should be remembered that this disease does not occur by itself. Most often, it is a consequence of poisoning or development in the animal of any concomitant disease. To determine the exact cause of kidney failure and cure the cat, its owners should seek qualified medical help.
Lasix (Furosemide) for cats and dogs is indispensable in the treatment of kidney failure and other diseases accompanied by edema. Although the drug is highly effective, doctors prescribe it to their four-pronged patients with extreme caution. Carefully selected dosage and duration of application allow to achieve a good result in the treatment of renal failure in domestic animals.
Dosing Information of Furosemide for Dogs and Cats
Depending on the degree of the disease, a different dosage is used for treatment. Furosemide for cats and dogs is prescribed by a veterinarian based on the body weight. They begin, as a rule, with intramuscular injections, and upon reaching the necessary results they switch to taking the pills until they are completely cured.
It is applied orally and intramuscularly. Furosemide is administered to a cat/dog by a veterinarian after a pet is examined. In general, Furosemide is used in the following dosages:
• Intramuscularly or intravenously (r-p 5%) - Injections of Furosemide to a cat/dog are made from the calculation of 0.1 ml per 1 kg of body weight. The frequency is 1-2 times a day, depending on the degree of the disease.
• Oral - Daily rate for oral administration of 5-6 mg per 1 kg of a cat/dog weight. Give in the mouth, diluted with water, strictly before meals.
In case there is edema, Furosemide will help to cure a pet quickly, but only if all the prescriptions of the doctor are observed. Depending on the method of application, the speed of the drug varies. When taking the pill, it starts for 15-30 minutes, and the effect lasts 6-8 hours.
With intramuscular injection, the action begins in 5-10 minutes, and the result is observed for 1.5-2 hours. Injections act much faster than tablets, but what kind of procedure a cat needs is determined only by a doctor. Furosemide acts in the lumen of convoluted tubules, it delays sodium in the puerperal urine and thereby increases the amount of urine. Furosemide does not affect glomerular filtration and does not impair the glomerular function.
The base dose is 0.1 ml / kg of body weight intramuscularly 2 times a day. With a lack of effect, the daily dose can be increased 2 to 4 times.
The maximum effect is given by a slow intravenous infusion. In oliguria, especially primary, it is possible to do furosemide intravenously starting from the basal dose and to increase each successive dose 2 times, until the necessary result is achieved - that is, the urine output by volume equal to the infusion of other drugs (ringer, saline, glucose, albumin, ). An effective dose is then used.
When the condition is stabilized, you can change to furosemide tablets. Potassium retention is observed with insufficient urine formation, and in most cases of chronic renal failure the urine is formed a lot and therefore a lot of potassium is lost.
With reduced renal function, even with polyuria, furosemide must be used, at least until the state stabilizes, and often permanently to maintain a stable state.
Note: If necessary, the dose may be increased as prescribed by the doctor. The maximum course of treatment is 10 days. With prolonged use, adverse effects are possible. If during this time Furosemide did not help, then it is changed to another remedy. During treatment, the cat needs increased attention and proper care.
Potential Side Effects of Using Furosemide in Pets
Lasix is a strong and quick-acting diuretic, which is a sulfonamide derivative. Lasix blocks the transport system of ions Na +, K +, Cl- in the thick segment of the ascending knee of the Henle loop, and therefore, its diuretic effect depends on the drug entering the lumen of the renal tubules (due to the mechanism of anion transport).
The diuretic effect of Lasix is associated with the inhibition of the reabsorption of sodium chloride in this section of the Henle loop. Secondary effects on the increase in sodium excretion are: an increase in the amount of urine released (due to osmotically bound water) and an increase in the secretion of potassium in the distal part of the renal tubule.
At the same time, the excretion of calcium and magnesium ions increases. When the tubular secretion of furosemide decreases or when the drug binds to the albumin located in the lumen of the tubules (for example, in a nephrotic syndrome), the effect of furosemide decreases. There are situations when it is necessary to apply the drug in limited quantities. But only if the benefit exceeds the risk.
Let's consider in what cases Furosemid is prescribed in a limited way:
• Take precautions with pregnancy, with constant monitoring of the fetus;
• When there is an outflow of urine;
• Apply in small doses for pancreatitis, diabetes and diarrhea;
• In case of low blood pressure and anemia;
• Lactation period. Furosemide can get through the pet's milk to kittens/puppies, and also, possibly, a decrease in milk production.
• Liver insufficiency with anuria.
• Urolithiasis disease.
• Individual intolerance of components.
• Reduced potassium level in the blood.
• Violation of water-salt metabolism.
• Violation of acid-base balance.
• Acute glomerulonephritis (kidney disease).
• Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Side effects: Assigning Furosemide to a pet, a veterinarian should warn its owner of possible side effects that this drug can cause. The most common adverse reactions that occur in pets at the background of treatment with a solution include lethargy, vomiting, poor appetite, a feeling of intense thirst, constipation, and inflammation of the pancreas. Also, an animal receiving Furosemide may experience allergic reactions and a marked decrease in the amount of urine released.
With the prolonged use of the drug, the risk of developing leukopenia in the cat, anemia, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis and other serious pathologies increases. A minor manifestation of side effects is not an excuse for drug withdrawal. However, in cases when the condition of the pet has worsened dramatically during the application of Furosemide, the host should stop the treatment and immediately show it to the veterinarian.
In some cases, the following reactions are possible:
• General weakness and nausea.
• Disorder of the gastrointestinal tract.
In cats, there may be a disturbance of balance and other vestibular phenomena. It is important to understand that if any of the side effects occur, you should stop taking Furosemide and contact your veterinarian. These reactions may mean that the drug is not suitable for the cat, and its use can lead to an undesirable result and aggravate the course of the disease.
Furosemide is an effective drug, but it is forbidden to use it independently. Only a specialist with a certain knowledge and experience can develop an effective treatment regimen, taking into account the health of the animal.